Extended Character Entities

Getting Started With Your Website:

Basic HTML Structure

accented letters, trademark symbols, mathematical symbols (including fractions), editorial symbols, arrows, currency symbols…

Part 2: extended character entities for HTML

recommended for encoding . standard characters . extended characters (includes accented letters) . cautionary tale about extended characters . encoding examples

Before going further, if you haven’t already, please read Character Entities for HTML, Part 1: ampersands, quotation marks, angled brackets, letters, numbers, copyright symbols… and Extended Characters: A Cautionary Tale.

extended characters

accented letters . copyright symbols . mathematical symbols (includes fractions) . editorial symbols . arrows . currency symbols . more extended characters (geometric shapes, more mathematical symbols, Greek alphabet, card suits)

You may see something entirely different, depending on your character set. Some people prefer to use named character entities rather than numbered. I have shown both in the following table. However, some browsers may not render the named character entities. For instance, some older browsers will not render ˆ (circumflex) with the named entity ˆ (one sees the character entity rather than the character) but do render ˆ using the equivalent numbered entity ˆ. Some older browsers do not render tilde ˜ with the named entity ˜ but do render ˜ using the numbered entity &732;. (Those last sentences may look like nonsense to you because your system does render the letter entities.) On some browsers, the unsupported character may show up as a ? (question mark) or a hollow rectangle.

The following charts are arranged with the numbered entities to the left of the symbol and named entities (if known) to the right. The number entities on the left are supported by recent browsers. Some named entities on right are NOT supported by older browsers.

If the character used has a number entity greater than #255, it may be advisable to use a numbered entity rather than named entity.

When using named entities, bear in mind that they are case-sensitive. Using the wrong case can produce an unintended result. Note the difference that an uppercase P can make:

′ produces
″ produces

When using the following codes, please let copy and paste be your friend.

choose [text] when adding HTML coding

– WP Administration Area – formatting pages and posts

If you are a WordPress user, please be sure to see Part 1 of Character Entities. (Click on the image to see a larger view of the screenshot.)

copyright symbols

accented letters . copyright symbols . mathematical symbols . editorial symbols . arrows . currency symbols . more extended characters

     ©  copyright                      ©   ©
     ®  registered trademark           ®   ®
       trademark                      ™  ™

editorial symbols

accented letters . copyright symbols . mathematical symbols . editorial symbols . arrows . currency symbols . more extended characters

        nonbreaking space                   
     «  left double angled quote       «   «
     »  right double angled quote      »   » 
       left single quote              ‘  ‘
       right single quote             ’  ’
       low single quotation mark      ‚  ‚
       left double quote              “  “
       right double quote             ”  ”
       low double quotation mark      „  „
       left single angled quote       ‹  ‹
       right single angled quote      ›  ›
     ¡  inverted exclamation mark      ¡   ¡
     ¦  broken vertical bar            ¦   ¦
     §  section                        §   §
     ¨  umlaut                         ¨   ¨
     ­  soft hyphen                    ­   ­  (not recommended)
     ´  accute accent                  ´   ´
       paragraph                      ¶   ¶
     ·  middle dot                     ·   ·
     ¸  cedilla                        ¸   ¸
     ¿  inverted questionmark          ¿   ¿
     ˆ  circumflex                     ˆ   ˆ
     ˜  tilde                          ˜   ˜
       en dash                        –  –
       em dash                        —  —
       horizontal ellipses            …  …
       dagger mark                    †  †
       double dagger mark             ‡  ‡
       bullet                         •  •

arrows

accented letters . copyright symbols . mathematical symbols . editorial symbols . arrows . currency symbols . more extended characters

  left arrow ←  ←
  upwards arrow ↑  ↑
  right arrow →  →
  downwards arrow ↓  ↓
  leftright arrow ↔  ↔
  updown arrow ↕  ↕
  northwest arrow ↖  ↖
  northeast arrow ↗  ↗
  southeast arrow ↖  ↘
  southwest arrow ↗  ↙
  left double arrow ⇐  ⇐
  upwards double arrow ⇑  ⇑
  right double arrow ⇒  ⇒
  downwards double arrow ⇓  ⇓
  leftright double arrow ⇔  ⇔
  updown double arrow ⇕  ⇕
  northwest double arrow ⇖  ⇖
  northeast double arrow ⇗  ⇗
  southeast double arrow ⇘  ⇘
  southwest double arrow ⇙  ⇙

need more arrows?

mathematical symbols

accented letters . copyright symbols . mathematical symbols . editorial symbols . arrows . currency symbols . more extended characters

     ¬   not                           ¬   ¬
     ¯   macron                        ¯   ¯
     °   degree                        °   °
     ±   plus or minus                 ±   ±
     ¹   superscript one               ¹   ¹
     ²   superscript two               ²   ²
     ³   superscript three             ³   ³
     ª   feminine ordinal              ª   ª
     º   masculine ordinal             º   º
     µ   micro                         µ   µ
        one eighth                    ⅛   
     ¼   one quarter                   ¼   ¼
        one third                     ⅓   
        three eighths                 ⅜   
     ½   one half                      ½   ½
        five eighths                  ⅝   
        two thirds                    ⅔   
     ¾   three quarters                ¾   ¾
        seven eighths                 ⅞  
     ×   multiplication symbol         ×   ×
     ÷   division symbol               ÷   ÷
        per thousand                  ‰  ‰

more mathematical symbols . geometric shapes

currency symbols

accented letters . copyright symbols . mathematical symbols . editorial symbols . arrows . currency symbols . more extended characters

     $  dollar                         $
     ¢  cent                           ¢   ¢
     £  pound Sterling                 £   £
     ¤  currency                       ¤   ¤
     ¥  yen                            ¥   ¥
     ƒ  florin (forte)                 ƒ   ƒ
       euro                           €  €

the following are not displayed on some older browsers:

  ฿ baht ฿
  colon ₡
  cruzeiro ₢
  lira ₤
  naira ₦
  rupee ₨
  won ₩
  shekel ₩
  dong ₩
  euro €  €

www.alanwood.net – more currency symbols

accented letters

accented letters . copyright symbols . mathematical symbols . editorial symbols . arrows . currency symbols . more extended characters

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     À  uppercase grave A              À   À
     à  lowercase grave a              à   à
     Á  uppercase acute A              Á   Á
     á  lowercase acute a              á   á
     Â  uppercase circumflex A         Â   Â
     â  lowercase circumflex a         â   â
     Ã  uppercase tilde A              Ã   Ã
     ã  lowercase tilde a              ã   ã
     Ä  uppercase umlaut A             Ä   Ä
     ä  lowercase umlaut a             ä   ä
     Å  uppercase ring A               Å   Å
     å  lowercase ring a               å   å
     Æ  uppercase AE ligature          Æ   Æ
     æ  lowercase ae ligature          æ   æ
     Ā  uppercase macron A             Ā
     ā  lowercase macron a             ā
     Ă  uppercase hacek A              Ă
     ă  lowercase hacek a              ă
     Ą  uppercase ogonek A             Ą
     ą  lowercase ogonek a             ą

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Ç  uppercase cedilla C            Ç   Ç
     ç  lowercase cedilla c            ç   ç
     Ć  uppercase acute C              Ć
     ć  lowercase acute c              ć
     Ĉ  uppercase circumflex C         Ĉ
     ĉ  lowercase circumflex c         ĉ
     Ċ  uppercase dot above C          Ċ
     ċ  lowercase dot above c          ċ
     Č  uppercase hacek c              Č
     č  lowercase hacek c              č

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Ð  uppercase ETH                  Ð   Ð
     ð  lowercase eth                  ð   ð
     Ď  uppercase hacek D              Ď
     ď  lowercase hook d               ď
     Đ  uppercase stroke D             Đ
     đ  lowercase stroke d             đ

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     È  uppercase grave E              È   È
     è  lowercase grave e              è   è
     É  uppercase acute E              É   É
     é  lowercase acute e              é   é
     Ê  uppercase circumflex E         Ê   Ê
     ê  lowercase circumflex e         ê   ê
     Ë  uppercase diuresis E           Ë   Ë
     ë  lowercase diuresis e           ë   ë
     Ē  uppercase macron E             Ē
     ē  lowercase macron e             ē
     Ĕ  uppercase breve E              Ĕ
     ĕ  lowercase breve e              ĕ
     Ė  uppercase dot above E          Ė
     ė  lowercase dot above e          ė
     Ę  uppercase ogonek E             Ę
     ę  lowercase ogonek e             ę
     Ě  uppercase hacek E              Ě
     ě  lowercase hacek e              ě

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Ĝ  uppercase circumflex G         Ĝ
     ĝ  lowercase circumflex g         ĝ
     Ğ  uppercase hacek G              Ğ
     ğ  lowercase hacek g              ğ
     Ġ  uppercase dot above G          Ġ
     ġ  lowercase dot above g          ġ
     Ģ  uppercase cedilla G            Ģ
     ģ  lowercase reversed cedilla g   ģ

     Ĥ  uppercase circumflex H         Ĥ
     ĥ  lowercase circumflex h         ĥ
     Ħ  uppercase slash H              Ħ
     ħ  lowercase slash h              ħ

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Ì  uppercase grave I              Ì   Ì
     ì  lowercase grave i              ì   ì
     í  lowercase acute i              í   í
     Í  uppercase acute I              Í   Í
     Î  uppercase circumflex I         Î   Î
     î  lowercase circumflex i         î   î
     Ï  uppercase diuresis I           Ï   Ï
     ï  lowercase diuresis i           ï   ï
     Ĩ  uppercase tilde I              Ĩ
     ĩ  lowercase tilde i              ĩ
     Ī  uppercase macron I             Ī
     ī  lowercase macron i             ī
     Ĭ  uppercase breve I              Ĭ
     ĭ  lowercase breve i              ĭ
     Į  uppercase ogonek I             Į
     į  lowercase ogonek i             į
     İ  uppercase dot above I          İ
     ı  lowercase no dot i             ı

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     IJ  uppercase IJ ligature          IJ
     ij  lowercase ij ligature          ij
     Ĵ  uppercase circumflex J         Ĵ
     ĵ  lowercase circumflex j         ĵ

     Ķ  uppercase cedilla K            Ķ
     ķ  lowercase cedilla k            ķ
     ĸ  lowercase kra                  ĸ

     Ĺ  uppercase acute L              Ĺ
     ĺ  lowercase acute l              ĺ
     Ļ  uppercase cedilla L            Ļ
     ļ  lowercase cedilla l            ļ
     Ľ  uppercase hook L               Ľ
     ľ  lowercase hook l               ľ
     Ŀ  uppercase dot beside L         Ŀ
     ŀ  lowercase dot beside l         ŀ
     Ł  uppercase stroke L             Ł
     ł  lowercase stroke l             ł

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Ñ  uppercase tilde N              Ñ   Ñ
     ñ  lowercase tilde n              ñ   ñ
     Ń  uppercase acute N              Ń
     ń  lowercase acute n              ń
     Ņ  uppercase cedilla N            Ņ
     ņ  lowercase cedilla n            ņ
     Ň  uppercase hacek N              Ň
     ň  lowercase hacek n              ň
     ʼn  lowercase hook n               ʼn
     Ŋ  uppercase ogonek N             Ŋ
     ŋ  lowercase ogonek n             ŋ

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Ò  uppercase grave O              Ò   Ò
     ò  lowercase grave o              ò   ò
     Ó  uppercase acute O              Ó   Ó
     ó  lowercase acute o              ó   ó
     Ô  uppercase circumflex O         Ô   Ô
     ô  lowercase circumflex o         ô   ô
     Õ  uppercase tilde O              Õ   Õ
     õ  lowercase tilde o              õ   õ
     Ö  uppercase umlaut O             Ö   Ö
     ö  lowercase umlaut o             ö   ö
     Ø  uppercase slash O              Ø   Ø
     ø  lowercase slash o              ø   ø
     Ō  uppercase macron O             Ō
     ō  lowercase macron o             ō
     Ŏ  uppercase breve O              Ŏ
     ŏ  lowercase breve o              ŏ
     Ő  uppercase tilde O              Ő
     ő  lowercase tilde o              ő

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Œ  uppercase OE ligature          Œ   Œ
     œ  lowercase oe ligature          œ   œ

     Þ  uppercase Thorn                Þ   Þ
     þ  lowercase thorn                þ   þ

     Ŕ  uppercase acute R              Ŕ
     ŕ  lowercase acute r              ŕ
     Ŗ  uppercase cedilla R            Ŗ
     ŗ  lowercase cedilla r            ŗ
     Ř  uppercase hacek R              Ř
     ř  lowercase hacek r              ř

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     ß  sz ligature (German double S)  ß   ß
     Ś  uppercase acute S              Ś
     ś  lowercase acute s              ś
     Ŝ  uppercase circumflex S         Ŝ
     ŝ  lowercase circumflex s         ŝ
     Ş  uppercase cedilla S            Ş
     ş  lowercase cedilla s            ş
     Š  uppercase hacek S              Š   Š
     š  lowercase hacek s              š   š

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Ţ  uppercase caron T              Ţ
     ţ  lowercase caron t              ţ
     Ť  uppercase hacek T              Ť
     ť  lowercase hook t               ť
     Ŧ  uppercase stroke T             Ŧ
     ŧ  lowercase stroke t             ŧ

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Ù  uppercase grave U              Ù   Ù
     ù  lowercase grave u              ù   ù
     Ú  uppercase acute U              Ú   Ú
     ú  lowercase acute u              ú   ú
     Û  uppercase circumflex U         Û   Û
     û  lowercase circumflex u         û   û
     Ü  uppercase umlaut U             Ü   Ü
     ü  lowercase umlaut u             ü   ü
     Ũ  uppercase tilde U              Ũ
     ũ  lowercase tilde u              ũ
     Ū  uppercase macron U             Ū
     ū  lowercase macron u             ū
     Ŭ  uppercase breve U              Ŭ
     ŭ  lowercase breve u              ŭ
     Ű  uppercase diuresis U           Ű
     ű  lowercase diuresis u           ű
     Ų  uppercase ogonek U             Ų
     ų  lowercase ogonek u             ų

A . C . D . E . G,H . I . IJ,K,L . N . O . OE,P,R . S . T . U . W,Y,Z

     Ŵ  uppercase circumflex W         Ŵ
     ŵ  lowercase circumflex w         ŵ

     Ý  uppercase acute Y              Ý   Ý
     ý  lowercase acute y              ý   ý
     Ŷ  uppercase circumflex Y         Ŷ
     ŷ  lowercase circumflex y         ŷ
     Ÿ  uppercase diuresis Y           Ÿ   Ÿ
     ÿ  lowercase diuresis y           ÿ   ÿ

     Ź  uppercase acute Z              Ź
     ź  lowercase acute z              ź
     Ż  uppercase dot above Z          Ż
     ż  lowercase dot above z          ż
     Ž  uppercase hacek Z              Ž
     ž  lowercase hacek z              ž
 
Use character entity &#160 or   to indicate nonbreaking spaces in HTML.
Several of the following when rendered show empty boxes, question marks, the character numbers rather than the characters themselves, or nothing at all. It is unadvisable to use these.
 
 € (some newer browsers see Euro sign)
 
Ž
(some newer browsers see uppercase Z with caron)
  
ž
(some newer browsers see lowercase z with caron)

other character entities –
may not be rendered by some OS

On some OS, an unsupported character may show up as a ? (question mark), a hollow square, or the actual coding for the entity might be displayed instead of the character itself. With the extended characters on this chart, it may be a good idea to use images rather than entities unless you know categorically that your viewers’ OS support these character entities.

more mathematical symbols

mathematical symbols . geometric shapes . Greek alphabet . card suits . more common extended characters

Please note that these characters may not be displayed on some OS.

       prime, minutes, feet           ′   ′  
       double prime, seconds, inches  ″   ″
       fraction slash                 ⁄   ⁄
       partial differential           ∂   ∂
       n-ary product, product sign    ∏   ∏    
       n-ary summation                ∑   ∑
       square root, radical sign      √   √
       infinity                       ∞   ∞
       intersection, cap              ∩   ∩    
       integral                       ∫   ∫
       less-than or equal to          ≤   ≤
       greater-than or equal to       ≥   ≥
       minus                          −   −
       almost equal to, asymptotic to ≈   ≈
       not equal to                   ≠   ≠
       identical to, equivalent       ≡   ≡
       lozenge                        ◊   ◊

other mathematical symbols . Greek alphabet . www.w3.org – more complete list

geometric shapes

mathematical symbols . geometric shapes . Greek alphabet . card suits . more common extended characters

please note that these characters may not be displayed on some OS

  filled bullet •
  filled square ■
  hollow square □
  small filled square outlined ▣
  small filled square ▪
  small hollow square ▫
  filled rectangle ▬
  hollow rectangle ▭
  filled vertical rectangle ▮
  hollow vertical rectangle ▯
  filled parallelogram ▰
  hollow parallelogram ▱
  filled vertical triangle ▲
  hollow vertical triangle △
  small filled vertical triangle ▴
  small hollow vertical triangle ▵
  filled triangle pointing right ▶
  hollow triangle pointing right ▷
  small filled triangle pointing right ▸
  small hollow triangle pointing right ▹
  filled pointer pointing right ►
  hollow pointer pointing right ▻
  filled triangle pointing down ▼
  hollow triangle pointing down ▽
  small filled triangle pointing down ▾
  small hollow triangle pointing down ▿
  filled triangle pointing left ◀
  hollow triangle pointing left ◁
  small filled triangle pointing left ◂
  small hollow triangle pointing left ◃
  filled pointer pointing left ◄
  hollow pointer pointing left ◅
  filled diamond ◆
  hollow diamond ◇
  small filled diamond outlined ◈
  fisheye ◉
  hollow circle ○
  dotted circle ◌
  bullseye ◎
  filled circle ●
  circle – left half filled ◐
  circle – right half filled ◑
  circle – lower half filled ◒
  circle – upper half filled ◓
  circle – upper right quarter filled ◔
  circle – upper left quarter hollow ◕
  left filled half circle ◖
  right filled half circle ◗
  filled lower right triangle ◢
  filled lower left triangle ◣
  filled upper left triangle ◤
  filled upper right triangle ◥
  hollow bullet ◦
  square left half filled ◧
  square right half filled ◨
  square upper left diagonal filled ◩
  square lower right diagonal filled ◪
  hollow square vertical bisecting line ◫
  hollow vertical triangle center dot ◬
  up-pointing triangle left half filled ◭
  up-pointing triangle right half filled ◮

geometric shapes . other mathematical symbols . Greek alphabet . Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources – geometric shapes

Greek alphabet

mathematical symbols . geometric shapes . Greek alphabet . card suits . more common extended characters

For use in technical documents employing the occasional Greek character – please note that these characters may not be displayed on older browsers

     Α  uppercase Alpha                Α   Α
     Β  uppercase Beta                 Β   Β
     Γ  uppercase Gamma                Γ   Γ
     Δ  uppercase Delta                Δ   Δ
     Ε  uppercase Epsilon              Ε   Ε
     Ζ  uppercase Zeta                 Ζ   Ζ
     Η  uppercase Eta                  Η   Η
     Θ  uppercase Theta                Θ   Θ
     Ι  uppercase Iota                 Ι   Ι
     Κ  uppercase Kappa                Κ   Κ
     Λ  uppercase Lambda               Λ   Λ
     Μ  uppercase Mu                   Μ   Μ
     Ν  uppercase Nu                   Ν   Ν
     Ξ  uppercase Xi                   Ξ   Ξ
     Ο  uppercase Omicron              Ο   Ο
     Π  uppercase Pi                   Π   Π
     Ρ  uppercase Rho                  Ρ   Ρ
     Σ  uppercase Sigma                Σ   Σ
     Τ  uppercase Tau                  Τ   Τ
     Υ  uppercase Upsilon              Υ   Υ
     Φ  uppercase Phi                  Φ   Φ
     Χ  uppercase Chi                  Χ   Χ
     Ψ  uppercase Psi                  Ψ   Ψ
     Ω  uppercase Omega                Ω   Ω

     α  lowercase alpha                α   α
     β  lowercase beta                 β   β
     γ  lowercase gamma                γ   γ
     δ  lowercase delta                δ   δ
     ε  lowercase epsilon              ε   ε
     ζ  lowercase zeta                 ζ   ζ
     η  lowercase eta                  η   η
     θ  lowercase theta                θ   θ
     ι  lowercase iota                 ι   ι
     κ   lowercase kappa               κ   κ
     λ  lowercase lambda               λ   λ
     μ  lowercase mu                   μ   μ
     ν  lowercase nu                   ν   ν
     ξ  lowercase xi                   ξ   ξ
     ο  lowercase omicron              ο   ο
     π  lowercase pi                   π   π
     ρ  lowercase rho                  ρ   ρ
     ς  lowercase final sigma          ς   ς
     σ  lowercase sigma                σ   σ 
     τ  lowercase tau                  τ   τ
     υ  lowercase upsilon              υ   υ
     φ  lowercase phi                  φ   φ
     χ  lowercase chi                  χ   χ
     ψ   lowercase psi                 ψ   ψ
     ω   lowercase omega               ω   ω

other mathematical symbols

Card Suits

mathematical symbols . geometric shapes . Greek alphabet . card suits . more common extended characters
please note that these characters may not be displayed on older browsers

       spade suit                    ♠   ♠
       club suit, shamrock           ♣   ♣
       heart suit                    ♥   ♥
       diamond suit                  ♦   ♦

It may also be a good idea to identify (with a meta tag) what character system you are using in the head section of your page somewhere before </head>:

<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=UTF-8″>

Other charactersets can be found at www.w3.org – Internationalization page.

Here is another chart with named entities. Also of interest is HTML Special Characters and Browser Compatibility WordPress Codex: Fun Character Entities.